The Department of Defense is in need of a fluorine-free Aqueous Film Forming Foam (AFFF) fire suppression solution, due to the current/pre-existing AFFF technology containing fluorine products that are toxic to both the environment and military personnel. In this project, Materials Modification, Inc. (MMI) will investigate and develop a fluorine-free ionic liquid for use in AFFF solutions that meets the performance and toxicity levels of the MIL-F-24385F standard.

Technical Approach

Ionic liquids are non-toxic or "green" and can be tailored to various applications based on synthesis procedures and its functional groups. MMI will develop a low surface tension, fire quenching, and fluorine-free ionic liquid that will foam upon application to the incendiary condition. MMI will assess the feasibility of using a water-soluble ionic liquid (IL) component for AFFF applications through lab-scale bench-top trials using controlled fire environments. The developed AFFF solution will also be evaluated under standardized conditions according to the MIL-F-24385F standard for fire suppression, toxicity, and chemical oxygen demand (COD).


Ionic liquid-based Aqueous Film Forming Foam (AFFF) system developed in this effort can be used to rapidly quench fires as well as provide an insulating coating on extinguished surfaces for quick recovery action. This system will be particularly useful for military application for recovery of sensitive equipment, materials, and will also be useful in the commercial and industrial sector (firefighters, hazmat personnel, and first responders).

  • PFAS-Free Alternative ,

  • AFFF