Executive Order 13423 and the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 require that U.S. federal agencies improve facility energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 30% by 2015 relative to a 2003 baseline. Building energy systems often consume 20% more energy than is necessary due to system deviation from the design intent. Identifying the specific sources and root causes of energy waste in buildings can be challenging largely because energy flows are generally invisible and because of the diversity of potential problems. Reducing the amount of energy wasted by building heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC), lighting, and water systems can achieve much of these goals. The objective of this project was to demonstrate a whole-building performance monitoring and anomaly classification system at two Department of Defense (DoD) sites in partnership with Naval Station Great Lakes. Specific objectives of the technology demonstrations were to (1) identify, classify, and quantify building energy consumption deviations from design intent or optimal, (2) support classification and identification of root causes of such deviation, (3) support recommendations for corrective actions, (4) quantify and prioritize the economic, energy of corrective actions, and (5) demonstrate that the building performance improves, ideally to its design intent, following implementation of corrective actions.
The software environment demonstrated integrates real-time building measurements and weather predictions with a simulation model, data mining, and anomaly detection algorithms. The computer simulation "reference model" represents the design intent of the building and includes HVAC, lighting, internal process loads, and water consumption. Instrumentation measures power and water flows. Data mining and anomaly detection algorithms identify and classify deviation from design intent.
The project successfully demonstrated:
The following energy faults were detected and diagnosed from the demonstration sites. These faults would waste more than 20% to 30% energy annually at the building level on two demonstration sites. Some faults would also cause issues related to thermal comfort.
The facility managers at the Naval Base Great Lakes found:
All the instrumentation is standard commercial off-the-shelf products. Selected highlights that are relevant for future implantations are: