The overall goal of this project is to develop a complete “green” fuze including primer, delay, and detonator in the M213 and related M228 configurations as a replacement for current fuzes consisting of materials that pose environmental threats. The demonstration of a full M67 hand grenade containing the green fuze will be conducted to ensure the manufactured product meets current requirements.

Technology Description

Due to the environmental threat of the lead and chromium (VI) found in current fuzes, environmentally benign materials have been sought after as replacements. Copper(I) 5-nitrotetrazolate (DBX-1) and methyl isocyanate (MIC) are green primary explosives developed and demonstrated to be non-toxic systems that meet primer performance requirements. DBX-1 has been successfully demonstrated in the C70 detonator of M213 fuzes. Additionally, both Combat Capabilities Development Command Armaments Center (CCDC AC) and Innovative Materials and Processes, LLC (IMP) have developed green formulations (W/MnO2 and SrMoO4, respectively) that are proven to meet the delay time requirements. This project will demonstrate that a fully green fuze can be developed from these materials and successfully meet Mil-Spec performance requirements.


The successful manufacture of green M213/M228 fuzes will result in elimination of lead-based materials, which have known health and environmental hazards and sustainment issues as the current stockpile of lead azide is deteriorating. The green fuze will also remove barium chromate from the delay, which addresses the 2009 DoD memorandum calling for the elimination or minimization of hexavalent chromium due to toxicity. Additionally, it would avoid the singlepoint failure of Zr-Ni alloys currently used in the M213/M228 delay composition that are only produced by one company.

  • Pyrotechnics,

  • Manufacturing,

  • Formulation,

  • Energetic Materials,