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This project optimizes energy storage implementation in Department of Defense (DoD) microgrids. Integrated modeling and design methods optimize a microgrid that can contain multiple energy storage asset types – a hybrid energy storage system (HESS) approach – in conjunction with diesel and renewable generation platforms. The project objectives are to:
Storage technologies evaluated broadly covered current commercially available storage approaches and chemistries, and included ultracapacitor, lithium ion, lithium iron phosphate battery (LiFePO4), zinc hybrid cathode, sodium sulfur, and flow battery technologies. This allowed modeling of storage integration considering a range of key technology attributes, such as C-rate, efficiency, and life.
An optimized microgrid and energy storage platform with integrated analytics and controls was utilized to evaluate potential HESS solutions. The approach combines economic optimization through the XENDEE platform and Arizona State University’s energy security model to evaluate energy asset portfolios, critical load coverage probability, economic performance, and asset dispatch strategies, ensuring energy security metrics are achieved while providing the lowest cost energy.
Primary conclusions of the study were that: